The Four Health Related Fitness Components
The ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity
Frequency 3-5 days per week
Intensity 60-90% of Max Heart Rate, where MHR is 220-age or
Time 20-60 minutes
Type: work large muscle groups, exercises with continuous movements, interval training
Proposal for starting a cardiovascular program:
Exercise at 40-50% of MHR for 1-3 weeks, depending on age, health, and fitness level
Progressively overload workout every 1-3 weeks for 3-6 months
Go back to a basic workout and supplement with other activities several times per week
Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance
Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle to exert a maximal force against a resistance. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to exert a submaximal force repeated over a period of time.
F 2-3 days per week
I % of 1-rep max
For strength 80-90% of 1 RM, 1-6 reps per set, 3 sets
For endurance 40-60% of 1 RM, 20-25 reps per set, 3 sets
For general fitness 70-75% of 1 RM, 8-12 reps per set, 3 sets
T recovery time in between sets, about 1 minute
T free weights, machine weights
Isometric exercises-no movement; Isotonic exercises-muscle length changes; Isokinetic exercises-muscle moves at the same speed (Cybex machine)
The ability of a joint to go through a full range of motion.
F 2-4 days per week
I stretch to the point of mild discomfort
T hold for 10-30 seconds
T static, dynamic, or PNF with the use of a trained partner
A measure of the percentage of the body’s weight which is fat.
Essential Fat 3-5% 8-12%
Ideal 8-22% 12-35%
Obese 25% + 38%+
The best measures for body composition assessment are DEXA(Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) hydrostatic weighing, but skinfolds are a sufficient alternative. Less reliable are bioelectrical impedance, infrared, and girth measurements.